ACS Materials
History of Concrete

Gobekli Tepe

9000 BC

An ancient form of concrete was created at the site of Gobekli Tepe Temple is Turkey. Here, the people used limestone and lime mortar to create pillars and walls. The people also used this material in placement of the terrazo floors, which was made of soft marly limestone materials that when mixed with sand and aggregates, dries to a form of concrete.


7000 BC

The oldest actual form of concrete was found in Galilee, Israel. While the road that was discovered here was made up of the same materials as in Gobekli Tepe, the difference was that the limestone material is thought to have been created through wood-fire kiln activities.

Syria & Jordan

6500 BC

The Nabataean traders of Syria and Jordan used cement mortar and plaster to create floors, structures and underground cisterns. Through these water channels, the Nabataean traders were successful in becoming civilized, as their desert and barren mountain locale made it difficult to collect water.

Ancient Nabataean Cistern

Lepenski Vir

5600 BC

In Lepenski Vir, which is on the Danube River in Yugoslavia, ancient concrete floors were made from local limestone clay, animal dung and ash. Today, one can view these floors that are in almost pristine condition. On the edges of the floors are areas that appear to be stone reinforcements to create multiple levels of the structures. This stone was also covered in the clay plaster that was used in the concrete floors.

Egypt & China

3000 BC

The Egyptian pyramids are constructed of mud, straw, gypsum mortars and lime mortars. In some areas of Egypt, these building blocks have been dated as far back as 2500 BC. Some experts have found that this cementing material was either lime concrete or burnt gypsum. In China, there was a form of cement used to build the Great Wall of China and other ancient Chinese structures.

Egyptian Pyramid block


1900 to 600 BC

In all four Greek periods, starting with the Minoan, the people constructed great palaces using stone and ceramic bricks that were connected using mortar. In the Mycenae period, structures often were build using only limestone and clay. In 600 BC, the Greeks discovered the concept of a natural pozzolan – volcanic ash, which was in abundance when the Santorini civilization was destroyed by a volcanic eruption in 1640 BC.


600 BC

The Romans utilized the Greek advancements to use the concept of cement and concrete in all types of construction. Today’s most used form of concrete is derived closely from the Roman development using a mixture of volcanic ash, lime and sea water, along with volcanic rock. 


10 BC

In 10 BC, Herod the Great was the King of Judea and he spearheaded the largest application of hydraulic concrete construction until almost the 20th Century. His project was called “Caesarea Maritima”, which was commissioned by Augustus Caesar.



Joseph Aspdin is the pioneer who developed the most common form of cement that is still used today – Portland Cement. He produced his cement by heating powdered limestone, mixing it with clay and grinding it down to a fine powder.

Modern-age Portland cement manufacturing plant

Not much has changed since 600 BC

The problems with cement and concrete production are large.

ACS Materials

Changing Concrete
One Cubic Yard at a Time